The combination of these two concepts allows, in space and at a precise time step, to identify the modifications undergone by the environment. This result may be a trend towards re-greening (improved vegetation cover) or desertification in light of human activities and / or current climate change. These two notions of greening / desertification, once developed, are scaled up to promote good practice and, on the other, to draw the attention of officials to the need to banish harmful practices For the maintenance of ecosystems. The approach put in place by the CILSS makes it possible to realize the state of the natural resources in the CILSS / ECOWAS space and consequently the way in which they are managed. Because where they are well managed, it is a guarantee of good production, even a good food security. In addition, in certain areas degraded by wind erosion, water erosion or cultural practices, the tool put in place allows them to be easily retrieved so that appropriate (biological and / or physical) actions are taken to restore natural resources . These resources essential to agro sylvo pastoral productions including land, water resources (surface water, rainwater, etc.) and forests. Indeed, in order to produce, a farmer needs land whose quality allows him to return his investment with satisfactory levels of yield.
How monitoring is done:
- CILSS / ECOWAS level
Mapping products on land use and land use with 2 km resolution The products of 1974, 2000 and 2010 are available and allow to assess the changes by occupancy class and land use during this period.
- Country Level
Map products on land use and land use at 1 km scale.
Like the regional level, country focal points have developed similar products for their countries in order to conduct the same treatments. The latter show the evolution of land area by occupancy class / occupation of the soil to feed the statistics in the field. This reality makes it possible to account for the way natural resources are managed.
- Most operational level (common)
Use of the Collect-Earth tool to establish (i) land-use and land use maps on a scale ranging from a maximum of 30 m to a maximum of 500 m as a complement to regional and state (Ii) statistics on the following vegetation cover, in particular the evolution of the average number of trees and shrubs per commune or any other ecological zones monitored.
Other indicators for vegetation cover monitoring (NDVI), water resources (NDWI, SWB) are regularly compiled to complement the range of others already monitored.
The monitoring mechanism as described here will undoubtedly play a preponderant role in accounting for the state of natural resources, and therefore for the ecosystems which are necessary for agricultural production.
There is a strong correlation between natural resource management and food security, which has three dimensions :
- Food availability ;
- Food accessibility ;
- And the use.
Indeed, in the field of food security, the notion of food availability concerns all the food resources produced, in stock or imported for a reference period. Factors affecting this component include: poor rainfall, soil degradation, inadequate use of mineral and organic fertilizer, under-farming, overexploitation of fields, overgrazing, insufficient training techniques.
Furthermore, the quality of Natural Resources Influence of agricultural production techniques on availability and ensure their food security.
Finally, inadequate and unsustainable production techniques can contribute to the degradation of natural resources, including land that results in their loss of quality and degradation.
To ensure sustainable food security for the West African populations, ECOAGRIS needs to provide itself with the means and tools necessary to have qualitative and quantitative data on the state and level of natural resources.
Concepts and Definitions
Management: action on natural resources will be considered here with a view to their dynamic valorisation for human and economic development and not in a protection-conservation (defensive).
Natural resources: definition of dictionaries: all the potentialities of a physical and biological environment (but also resource: the means available to help oneself).
Soil degradation is defined as a change in the state of soil health that results in a decrease in the ability of the ecosystem to provide goods and services to its beneficiaries. Degraded soils are in such a state of health that they do not provide the usual goods and services of the soil in its ecosystem. (FAO).
Soil erosion is a common term that is often confused with soil degradation as a whole, but in fact only concerns absolute soil losses in terms of topsoil and nutrients. This is the most visible effect of soil degradation, but it does not cover all of its aspects. Soil erosion is a natural process in mountainous areas, but is often exacerbated by poor management practices.
Land degradation is wider than soil erosion and soil degradation together because it encompasses all negative changes in the ecosystem's ability to provide goods and services (including goods and services Biological and water and - in LADA's vision - also social and economic goods and services related to land).
Desertification is another commonly used term for (a) land degradation in arid zones and / or (b) irreversible change of land to the point where it can no longer be recovered for its original use.
Prevention involves the use of conservation measures that maintain the productive natural resources and their environment.
Mitigation is an intervention to reduce ongoing degradation. This happens at a stage where degradation has already begun. The main objective is to stop degradation and begin to improve resources and their functions. The impacts of mitigation tend to be noticeable in the short to medium term: this provides a strong incentive to pursue efforts. The word "mitigation" is also sometimes used to describe the reduction of the impacts of degradation.
Rehabilitation is necessary when the land is already degraded to the point where the original use is no longer possible and the land has become virtually unproductive. In these cases, long-term and often more expensive investments are needed to see the slightest impact.
Soil degradation and improvement varies according to place and time depending on the use to which the land is subjected and it also depends on the different and sometimes contradictory objectives of the stakeholders.
RNA is a practice of leaving, during the clearing (during the dry season or in the rainy season) 1 to 3 rejections from the strains of the different trees and shrubs so that they continue their growth.
Land use designates for FAO (1998) "the (bio-) physical cover of the land surface" and thus the type of use (or non-use) made of land by man. The landscape mosaic is mapped by identifying the homogeneous types of environments (eg artificial zones, agricultural areas, forests or moors, wetlands, etc.
Protected Areas: Integral Nature Reserves, Parks, National Monuments, Special Purpose Reserves and Protected Landscape Areas.